The quotes have been translated from Swedish to English by knowledgeable translator. Omitted phrases are indicated by “(…)”, and hesitation indicated by “…”, whereas square brackets “ ” indicate authors’ feedback. The FGDs are labelled FGD A to FGD H and the members in every FGD are numbered P1 to P7.
The moderators have been trained for eight hours on two different events by FA, EF and CW in topics related to cervical cancer and cervical screening attendance amongst immigrant women in Sweden, and how to handle different conditions that could come up throughout FGDs. Data was collected between April and May 2010 at Karolinska Institutet. The Nordic societies are identified for his or her universal welfare system and are considered to be very equal societies . However, despite the general similarities between the three Scandinavian nations cervical screening attendance in Sweden differs between Danish and Norwegian immigrant women and Swedish-born women. However, given the similarities between the Scandinavian societies, such factors are supposedly less widespread amongst Danish and Norwegian immigrants than other immigrants in Sweden. Links between hormonal contraceptives and depression have been raised up to now, but this Danish research is among the many largest to date. More than a million women were tracked over a ten-12 months interval via a national database.
We used an observational register-based mostly cohort drawn from Danish national health registers including two patient populations with PCOS and one management population (Fig.1). PCOS Denmark included all women in Denmark aged 12–60 years, who were identified by way of a hospital contact with PCOS and/or hirsutism between January 1st 1995 and the top of 2012. PCOS Odense University Hospital included an embedded local sub-cohort of ladies with PCOS and/or hirsutism treated at OUH with out there medical and biochemical information. For every affected person in PCOS Denmark , three management women born in the same 12 months because the patient were randomly drawn from the civil population register. Controls have been assigned the index date of their matched PCOS circumstances and ought to be alive on the index date of their PCOS case. In abstract, Danish women with cosmetic breast implants skilled the next overall mortality in contrast with women in the general inhabitants, which was owing mainly to increased mortality from suicide and smoking-associated disease. Women who underwent breast discount surgery had lower whole and cause-particular mortality compared with women in the common population, however a moderate excess risk of suicide.
Follow-up for death began on the date of implantation, breast reduction or different therapy or session, and continued till date of emigration, date of dying or December 31, 1999, whichever occurred first. The variety of deaths in the standard explanation for death classes observed among the cohort members was in contrast with the number of deaths expected among the many general feminine inhabitants of Denmark. To acquire the anticipated number of deaths, female-specific demise rates, calculated according to 5-yr age teams and 1-year calendar periods, had been multiplied with the corresponding particular person-years of the cohort members. We also calculated odds ratios and 95% CI evaluating the prevalence of prior psychiatric hospitalization among women with implants with that among the controls groups.
The moderator balanced the dialogue so that all subjects within the discussion guide had been evoked. All participants had been supplied a gift as a token of appreciation; they could choose between two movie tickets or a 150 SEK gift certificate to a flower shop.
Moreover, we used native-speaking moderators to facilitate the participation of women who might need been hesitant as a result of language issues, but additionally to offer the participants the chance to use their own language at times for readability of thought. The discussions have been open and vigorous and allowed totally different views to be expressed. This was additionally confirmed by reviewing the field notes taken after every FGD within the debriefing session. The multidisciplinary combination of the analysis group introduced varied and practical experience, as is recommended in migrant studies . This group approach was additionally used in the data analysis side of the research so as to strengthen the trustworthiness of our categorisations and interpretations. A abstract based mostly on the field notes and a debriefing session between the moderator and the assistant have been additionally tape recorded immediately after each FGD. The FGDs lasted for 1 to 1½ hours, during which the women talked brazenly and freely.
Data had been analysed utilising principles of latent content analysis with an inductive approach . In this paper solely information associated to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening, were included.
We found that organisational and structural elements negatively influenced attendance at cervical screening. However, these factors have also been mentioned by Swedish-born women who have actively chosen to not attend organised cervical screening . Therefore it could be argued that organisational and structural components could have a adverse affect on women’s attendance at cervical screening no matter immigrant status. In distinction, there were also women in all age groups who mentioned the advantage of being invited to cervical screening regularly, and the way it gave them a sense of safety that they were being checked. In the identical FGD, women mentioned more in detail how differences within the construction of the Norwegian and the Swedish health care techniques may have a adverse impression on attendance at cervical screening. During the FGD, women defined that in Norway, the choice to have a Pap smear was taken in live performance with the gynaecologist, and was a results of individualised care, in contrast to the organised invitation letter system in Sweden.
The information from NQRCP showed that each Danish and Norwegian women delayed their attendance at cervical screening in Sweden in accordance to the recommendations of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare . Both Danish and Norwegian women in the age group forty one–70 years delayed their attendance by 15 years and 14 years respectively. The delay was by 2 years and fewer danish brides than 1 yr amongst Danish and Norwegian women within the age group 23–forty years. According to info from NQRCP all women had attended no less than as soon as in Sweden besides for two Danish women.
The analysis of FGD transcripts was carried out by country of origin and by age group . During step one of study, the transcripts had been read a number of times, making notes on the codes that arose from the content of the discussion, so as to turn out to be immersed in the information. Thereafter the recognized codes have been collapsed into broader classes, and eventually one primary theme was generated. The materials was also learn by CW, EF and PT and mentioned several occasions with the first writer in the course of the analysis. Quotations from individuals were chosen to assist and illustrate the classes, and the generated theme.
Johanne took up the reason for women’s insufficient instructional resources, lobbying loud and lengthy in the newspapers for ladies to obtain the identical educational opportunities that men did. Under such public strain, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts reluctantly opened a separate art school for women in 1888, with Johanne appointed as its inspector till 1908 when it was lastly merged with the lads’s artwork faculty. Although she participated in some exhibits in Munich, Chicago, and Paris, she was also a co-founding father of the Danish artists affiliation known as Free Exhibition the place she would exhibit her portraits and different paintings for the rest of her life. The research design and baseline information for this research have recently been reported in detail and information relating to improvement of sort 2 diabetes and incident fractures within the study cohort has recently been printed.
All study individuals, except two women had attended cervical screening at least as soon as between their immigration to Sweden and the date of the FGD. This might have contributed to their view of being attenders to cervical screening even though from a biomedical perspective and according to the suggestions of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare they had been non-attenders.
We enrolled two moderators, who have been native speakers of Danish and Norwegian, respectively, to guide the discussions. The purpose of this was to not exclude women who had been hesitant to take part because of language problems, and in addition to facilitate dialogue by providing the opportunity for the individuals to discuss in their very own language if they so wished for readability of thought. The Danish moderator worked as a research assistant and the Norwegian moderator was a midwife who labored in a scientific setting.
The members, all aged between 15 and 34 years old, did not suffer from main psychological well being disorders. was born to Frederik Chrisian Krebs, a physician and social economist, and Anna Margrethe Borch who was a author. They supported her desire to receive art coaching, but discovered that solely costly personal colleges were available to women. Johanne started finding out privately in Copenhagen in 1869 with P.C. Skovgaard and in 1873 with William Kyne at his non-public drawing faculty; in 1875 she continued her studies with Norwegian painter Eilif Petersen in Munich the place she also turned associates with the famous dramatist Henrik Ibsen and his wife.
Compared with the management teams, we found proof of an elevated prevalence of prior psychiatric hospital admission amongst women present process cosmetic breast implantation, which can relate to their subsequent higher risk of suicide. In a nationwide Danish examine of threat factors for suicide, Mortensen et al26 reported a population attributable risk of almost 50% for prior hospitalization for mental illness. Danish women with beauty breast implants skilled larger overall mortality compared with women in the common population owing partly to a three-fold enhance in suicide. Women with breast discount had a low total and cause-particular mortality but a average excess danger of suicide. For the first time, to our data, we found proof of an increased prevalence of psychological illness as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital prior to implant surgery amongst women receiving cosmetic breast implants. Studies are needed to clarify the underlying reasons for the constantly reported 2- to 3-fold excess of suicide amongst women with cosmetic breast implants. To facilitate an open ambiance, we tried to attain homogeneity in group composition by forming teams based on nation of origin and age.